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Foreign architects introduced new building types and new architectural styles to the Ottoman capital. Classical revivalism, Gothic revivalism and Islamic revivalism (or Orientalism) were the variations of the European eclecticism which was prevalent in the works of the foreigners in Istanbul. Another European architectural style which was introduced by the foreign architects was Art Nouveau. Architectural pluralism in 19th century-Istanbul observed on the facades of the new building types such as banks, office buildings, hotels, multistory houses, theaters etc., created opposition against the foreigner architects among Turkish intellectuals.

Jachmund’s Deutsche Orient Bank designed in a central European-style with neo-renaissance mass.

The Deutsche Orient Bank stands not far from Sirkeci station, whose Oriental features created an entrance into the city that was meant to fulfil the Western travelers expectations of the exotic. The building, with its prow shape bearingas the apex of the composition a turreted cylindirical corner volume of ribbed surface.

Both Jachmund’s and Vallaury’s designs for Istanbul exhibited a duality. When they designed for the Ottoman government they tried to produce a synthesis of the neo-classic forms and Ottoman or Islamic architectural elements. When they worked for foreign enterprises their design exhibited pure European-styles.

The Germania han, also known as Deutsche Orient Bank building was built by German architect August Jachmund, who also built the nearby Sirkeci Train Station, for the prime bank of German interest in Ottoman Turkey. It is a magnificent example of Art Nouveau in Istanbul.

It is also worth noting that the student of August Jachmund, Kemalettin,  is the architect of the building right across in the corner, 1. vakıf han.

The Deutsche Orient Bank, founded in 1906, was established to finance infrastructure in all regions of the Ottoman Empire.

Pruvayı andıran, tasarımının odak noktasını oluşturan, köşe görünümlü yivli yüzeyi ve
silindirik köşeli hacmi ile oldukça dikkat çekicidir (Şekil 4.33). 7 katlı, neo klasik üslupta
tasarlanmış olan hanın girişi de yine bu kulenin altındandır. Dönemin ortak biçimlenme
özelliği olan ve birçok yüzyıl sonu yapısında da görülen ancak diğerlerinden farklı olarak,
galerinin üzeri “eğrisel” konstrüksiyonlu cam çatı, hanın yapımında endüstriyel ürünlerden
oldukça faydalanıldığının bir göstergesidir (Şekil 4.32).

Detsche Orient Bank bu han ile sarsılmaz bir finansal temel üzerine kurulmuş, ekonomisinin
güvenilirliğini yansıtmaya çalışmaktadır. Stuttgart Bankası ihalesi ile Anadolu Osmanlı
İmparatorluğu demiryollarının kurucusu olan Deutsche Orient Bank’ın asıl amacı Türk
pazarında kendine yer bulmak ve Alman şirketlerine ekonomik anlamda destek sağlamaktır.
(D.Barillari, E. Godoli, 1997).

Yöresel etkiler altında gerçekleştirilen bu yapı, batı seçmeciliğine göre biçimlenmiş cepheleri
ve bunun üzerine eklenen Osmanlı ve Arap mimarisinin izleri yapı öğeleri ile bir mimari
üslup kargaşası yaratmıştır.(Y. Yavuz, 1981). Yüzyılın ilk yıllarında yapılmış , İstanbul
mimarisindeki Alman etkisini, mimari üslubun yanında kullanılan endüstri ürünlerinin
fazlalığı ve dikkat çeken süslü cepheleri ile mimarlık tarihinde yerini almış büro hanlarından
biridir.

Üzerinde “Deutsche Orientbank A.G.” yazan ve yapım kitabesi bulunmayan
bina, ticaret amaçlı yapılmış olup Germania Han olarak bilinir. 49 Mimarı, Türkçe
literatürde Jasmund olarak geçer. 50 1900-1910 arasında yapıldığı, bu yıllarda
alınmış fotoğraflardan anlaşılan Germania Han, arsası nedeniyle ikizkenarlı bir
üçgen şeklinde olup, meydana bakan kısmı daire şeklinde yumuşatılmış ve kubbeli
bir kule şeklinde sonuçlandırılmıştır. Simetrik bir anlayışla ele alınan cephelerden
zemin kat ile dört ve beşinci katlar, barok etkili mimari unsurlarla donatılmıştır
(Foto 12, 13).
Kubbeli silindirik meydan cephesi, Batı’da özellikle saray ve şato
mimarisinde sıkça görülen bir uygulamadır. Bu uygulama, 19. yy da büyük şehir
meydanlarına bakan gösterişli binaların köşelerinde de yaygın bir kullanım
görmüştür. Jasmund’un daha küçük ölçekte ve sade olarak ilk denemesini Rumeli
Hanı’nda yaptığı bu köşe kubbesi uygulaması, binanın en çok tartışılan kısmıdır. 51
Bıraktığı ağır etki nedeniyle Germania Han binasını, orta Avrupa mimari
anlayışının İstanbul’daki yeni bir örneği olarak değerlendirebiliriz.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Tempietto of San Pietro in Montorio

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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pudding_Shop

Pudding Shop

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The “Pudding Shop” in 2010.

The Pudding Shop is the nickname for the “Lale Restaurant” in the Sultanahmet neighborhood of Istanbul, Turkey. It became popular in the 1960s as a meeting place for hippies and other travelers on overland route between Europe and India, Nepal, and elsewhere in Asia – the ‘hippie trail‘. The restaurant got its colloquial name as a result of “word-of mouth” from numerous foreign travelers that could not remember the name of the eatery but did remember the wide and popular selection of puddings sold there and thus referred to it as the “pudding shop”.[1]

Background

When brothers İdris and Namık Çolpan opened the restaurant in 1957, they had no idea that it would eventually become one of the most popular meeting places for travelers venturing across Europe and Asia during the 1960s. They anticipated less that for a period of time their restaurant would become a mecca for individuals journeying through the hippie trail. In consideration of the general lifestyle and political views of hippies in the 1960s, the restaurant, developed an image associated with the counterculture of the time. Such stereotypes and ideas that resonated with the term “hippie”, including music choice, political stance, particular style of dress, or drugs, became tied to the restaurant.

Because most of its customers were tourists, the Pudding Shop eventually developed into a popular rest stop, a place where people could gather, discuss their traveling experiences, and delight in fairly priced, traditional Turkish food. Among the restaurant’s variety of well-known dishes and desserts was tavuk göğsü, a seldom found pudding made from pounded chicken breast, rice flour, milk, sugar topped with cinnamon.[2] The restaurant still offers this rare treat today, catering to customers with appetites for traditional Turkish cuisine.

During the 1960s, customers could enjoy their meals inside, where there were large booths and couches surrounded by piles of books and the audible music of contemporary rock bands playing lightly in the background. Decoration was minimal; on the plain white walls hung occasional prints of paintings and photographs without a real theme. Towards the left side of the restaurant’s interior, the entire wall was composed of glass, creating a greater sense of space for the small location. The lack of decor did not in any way make the restaurant appear meek or glum. The customers alone brought all the ambiance and liveliness that the restaurant could have created with interior decor. The garden was another area to relax and eat with the grand view of the Blue Mosque and the Hagia Sophia in the distance. Here was, where many customers played their instruments, sung, and conversed about their travels in the fresh air. Adem Çolpan, son of İdris Çolpan, remembers how “it was the time of the Vietnam War” and how many of the travelers just “lived for the moment… didn’t think much of tomorrow.”[1]

In its first few years, the Pudding Shop was the only place in the area where direct transportation to Asia and tourist information on Turkey were readily available. With this knowledge, the Çolpan brothers put up a bulletin board inside the restaurant so that travelers could schedule rides with their fellow travelers and communicate with friends and family members. This board was very useful to the tourists, and eventually became notorious for the variety of personal messages that were posted alongside the transportation notifications. These included love and apology letters; one of the board’s most well-known posts was an open love letter from Megan to Malcolm in which she asked for his forgiveness and apologized for “the business down in Greece.” [3].

A few other messages from the 1960s travelers are still posted on the board today serving as nostalgic homages to a lively past. In the present day, the Pudding Shop has lost much of its original character. Many old-visitors and those aware of the restaurant’s rich past with the hippie movement recognize that the restaurant resembles little of what it once was. From their perspective, the restaurant seems to have lost its spunk to commercialization and fame. Outside the restaurant, there is now a large sign that says “The World Famous Pudding Shop” and inside there are no longer servers but a self service cafeteria and a large menu illuminated by neon lights.[3].

Today

The old bulletin board still hangs but is no longer flooded by messages between family members, friends, and lovers. Today, it is covered instead, with less romantic and more practical messages between travelers. The garden where travelers once congregated for meals, or after meals to play their instruments has been removed. Some individuals believe that the major change that the restaurant has undergone since its hippie hey-days is due to the fame that it has acquired. In 1978, the Pudding Shop was featured in the popular book and movie Midnight Express, which contributed to the growing reputation of the restaurant.[3]

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  • Spread on 596 acres of land, Veliefendi Hipodromu has a seating capacity of 7600 for audiences to view their favorite horse gallop through the turf to the finishing line. The schedule of the race course is usually packed during its racing season and, thus, is a favorite destination for the rich and famous horse-racing sport enthusiasts. Apart from the racing track, the Hippodrome also houses an administrative building, race horse hospital, museum, a picnic spot and cafes. Check the racing calender on this venue from the website listed.

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Check here for a Google Maps of this walk: goo.gl/maps/m0FB

 

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The column that gives Çemberlitaş (column with rings) its name was in Byzantine times a plaited Column where the statue of Constantinus stood at the top. It was renovated from the early days because of the continuous disasters. After the fires at Ottoman times the column has been supported by iron rings in order to stand safely, and what is left is this 35 meter tall column.

The column was dedicated on May 11, 330 AD, with a mix of Christian and pagan ceremonies. In Constantine's day the column was at the center of the Forum of Constantine (today known as Çemberlitaş Square), an oval forum situated outside the city walls in the vicinity of what may have been the west gate of Antoninia. On its erection, the column was 50 meters tall, constructed of nine cylindrical porphyry blocks surmounted by a statue of Constantine in the figure of Apollo. The orb he carried was said to contain a fragment of the True Cross. At the foot of the column was a sanctuary which contained relics claimed to be from the crosses of the two thieves who were crucified with Jesus Christ at Calvary, the baskets from the loaves and fishes miracle, an alabaster ointment jar belonging to Mary Magdalene and presumably used by her for the washing of the feet of Jesus,[1] the palladium of ancient Rome and a wooden statue of Athena from Troy.

From where you are standing, you should be able to see the famous Turkish Bath Çemberlitaş Hamam, once called Valide Hamam. It was built in 1584 by great Ottoman architect Mimar Sinan for Nûrbânû Sultan  Nurbanu Sultan, the wife of Selim II and mother of Murat III as a way to provide subsidies for a charity complex located on the Asian side in Üsküdar.  However if you want to have a cheaper and calmer experience I advise Gedik Ahmet Paşa, a few streets down and right on the other side of the tram tracks.

The mosque you see above is Atik Ali Paşa mosque. One of the oldest mosques in Istanbul, build in 1496 by Hadım Atik Ali Paşa.

Atik Ali Paşa was a eunuch who was the head of The Gate of Felicity (Bâbüssaâde Gate) the entrance into the Inner Court in the palace. He rose to the rank of Grand Vizier and general under Sultan Beyazit II. Eunuchs were common in the Ottoman's as they were in Roman and Byzantine (Saint  Ignatius of Constantinople, General Narses of Rica Riots fame) civilizations. Their close position to the Sultan in the palace enabled them to have high opportunities.  Chief White Eunuch (Kapı Ağasi), was in charge of 300 to 900 white eunuchs as head of the 'Inner Service' (the palace bureaucracy, controlling all messages, petitions, and State documents addressed to the Sultan), head of the Palace School (school for pages training as white eunuchs), gatekeeper-in-chief, head of the infirmary, and master of ceremonies of the Seraglio, and was originally the only one allowed to speak to the Sultan in private. In 1591, Murad III transferred the powers of the white to the black eunuchs as there was too much embezzlement and various other nefarious crimes attributed to the white eunuchs, but later they regained some favour. Hadım Sinan Pasha (1516–1517) and Gürcü Mehmed Pasha  (Hadım Mehmed Pasha) 1622-1623  are other eunuchs that were important Grand Viziers in Ottomans.

Other famous Ottoman eunuch's are Hadim Ali Pasha, governor of Rumeli (entire Balkan Region) in 1491, who also funded the school adjacent to the Atik Ali Paşa Mosque.    Start walking down the column, you'll notice an open air parking lot to your left. We'll make a left and follow through this parking lot, however before that, you can view some restaurants on Vazirhane street or Molla Fenari street as well. Molla Fenari Street to the side of the column goes inward, turns into Vezirhane street a little later.

Molla Fenari (named after Fatih Sultan Mehmet's teacher,poet and the kadı of Bursa (k. 1393, 1415), and the first Ottoman Şeyhülislam). He explained the world as a book made out of divine letters.Divine letters carry the essential truth and knowledge of God. These letters combine to make words, sentences, phrases, and texts, all of which are divine. The human being called insan-ı kamil is the most perfect creation of this book. Fenari explained being as composed of a physical visible body, and metaphysical invisible essence. He described body as a form (wujûd), and essence (zât) as the fundamental nature, the hidden truth within this body. All essence was one and unified, and referred to the oneness of unity (el-Ehadiyye). However bodies manifested were illusions and they referred to the multiplicity of unity (el-Vâhidiyye). Fenari declared that God was the only thing whose essence and body were equal to one another. There was no representational space between God’s essence and his body that would allow for any illusion, or interpretation. Fenari acknowledged that the essence of God was different than the essence of all other things. However his body participated in the manifestation of other bodies, the body of things. According to Fenari, body was not a real quality attributed to the essence. It was a metaphorical quality attributed to the essence. Thus if body was considered as a quality of the essence, it would mean that essence would always require the presence of a body.

The essence of God was described according to its qualities (sıfat). These qualities were listed as Life, Science, Will, Power, Audition, Sight, Speech and Creation (Hayat, İlim, İrâde, Kudret, Semi’, Basar, Kelâm, Tekvin). They were neither static descriptions of the essence of God, nor images reflecting it. Fenari explained these qualities as relative natures with respect to the essence of God. These qualities were then manifested in names of God. Finally, the names of God were manifested in things. This representation taking place in three stages, evolving from the True Being and finally completing in things, in the sequence of essence-quality-namething, could not be traced back to the essence of God. Thus the thing would never be considered as equal to the name, the quality, or to the essence of God itself.

According to Fenari, qualities were not directly illustrated in names, or they were not equal to them. As well, the names once manifested in the presence of things, became hidden, and invisible to the eyes of the human being. Though those people who trained themselves, who were illuminated were able to see the presence of the name of God, and his qualities in things created.

In Vezirhane street you'll see Aslan Restaurant to your right. It is one of the best tradesman restaurants, makes fine traditional Turkish food. Before you reach the restaurant if you followed left, through the open air parking lot you'll be in Tavukçu Pazarı (Chicken Bazaar) sokak. There is also an interesting fish restaurant here, in Tavukçu Pazarı street, passed the corner of Nuruosmaniye street, find number 58 on Tavukcu Pazarı on your right and enter through a door with no name and climb a few stairs and you will surely see an interesting small spot. Before our trip if you want to eat something you can choose either one of the restaurants. If not let's get back to the corner of  Tavukcu and Nuruosmaniye cd. Before we make it to The Grand Bazaar let's make a few stops, for example Nur-u Osmaniye MosqueAt the begining of the Nuruosmaniye street, to your right you will see Sofcu Han, it would be nice to enter it's courtyard and take a look. It is an old building but not really worn down. Yağcı Han (Oil mall) across the Nuruosmaniye street is another mall. Further ahead to the right you'll see an Anatolian Carpets store, where once stood a fountain. The famous Nur-u Osmaniye will stand to your right a little further ahead, enter and take a look around courtyard and inside. This entrance ramp to the royal gallery where Sultan passed on his horse on his way to the mosque is interesting.

This mosque's construction was started in 1748 by Mahmud 1st. For unknown reasons his life was not enough to complete it so Osman 3rd finished it on 1755. And so the name is attributed to Osman. A Greek architect named Simeon is believed to have constructed it. The mosque is a really different representative of the Baroque style which was dominating those days. The four dome's of the mosque, non-rectangular inner courtyard, nice gardens and other buildings of the complex are particularly well designed. 

It was built by architects Mustafa Ağa and Simon Kalfa from the order of Sultan Mahmut I and completed by his brother and successor Sultan Osman III. The architects adopted Baroque architectural elements, the mosque is also distinctive with the absence of an ablution fountain (Turkish: şadırvan).In style, the complex is distinguished from its precedents with its adoption of baroque design elements and embodies the westernizing vision of Mahmud I. While there is little known about its architect, Simeon Kalfa, its construction is documented in detail by construction manager Ahmed Efendi in a booklet entitled "Tarih-i Cami-i Serif-i Nur-i Osmani". The name Nuruosmaniye, or the Light of Osman, is thought to refer to Osman III and to a verse from the Sura of Al-Nur, — "God is the light of the heavens and the earth", which is inscribed inside the dome. The prayer hall is square with a semi-circular mihrab apse and is crowned with a large dome 25 meters in diameter and raised to a height of 43.50 meters on four monumental arches. The interior space is activated by wide galleries that surround it on three sides. There are no aisles; the space below the galleries is an exterior arcade and is accessed through two side doors with cascading steps. At three different places — the entrance and the two corners flanking the qibla wall — the galleries are widened to form balconies that project into the prayer hall carried on columns. The corner balconies are deepened further with the inclusion of arcade space; the one to the east is the sultan's lodge and has gilted latticework between its columns. It is accessed primarily by a ramp outside the mosque that allowed the sultan to ascend to his quarters on his horse. The baroque influence is conveyed through the extensive use of sculptural elements such as pilasters and cornices, and baroque motifs, such as garlands (decorative cords), finials (apex of a gable, top of the triangle sections) and scallops (curved projections forming an ornamental border) . Going beyond mere imitation, the Nuruosmaniye mosque achieves one of the finest instances of Ottoman baroque, a unique synthesis between classical Ottoman and contemporary western styles that is epitomized in the scallop muqarnas domes crowning its portals. The library is a single-story building set on a high platform accessed by two sets of stairs located to the west that lead into separate entryways. An Arabic inscription above the entrance states: "Demand science, from the cradle to the grave." It has a cross-plan with widely rounded corners and consists of an elliptical reading room enveloped by an arcade made of fourteen columns. Opened in 1755 with eighteen employees, the Nuruosmaniye Library is a branch of the Süleymaniye Library today and today it contains personal collections of Mahmud I and Osman III with a total of 7600 volumes of which 5052 are manuscripts. From 1932 to 1950 the ezan, the call to prayer was voiced in Turkish in mosques instead of the Arabic which nobody understands. The imam who voiced this first Turkish call to prayer, Sadettin Kaynak, requested in his will for his funeral prayer to be performed here.

We'll leave the mosque on the side of Şerefefendi (Mr. Şeref street) sokağı. At the corner you'll see Şeref Han build in 18th century. Continue down the street, further ahead to the right is the Mahmut Paşa Mosque and tomb.

Mahmut Paşa was one of the first grand vizier's of Fatih. As a child, he was captured in Serbia by the horsemen of sultan, it was common for Ottoman's to enlist in the high level of their ranks, high level administrative posts, men who were born Christians, children of Aristocratic families in captured lands, and who had close relatives that remained in Christianity. He was of Greek and Serbian origins (his last name was Angelovich, Angeolos) yet as is many people who converted to Islam, he was rather fanatical in his views even though his mother and brother were remained Christians. Mahmut Paşa played an active role in the siege of Constantinople where he was given the task of besieging the walls extending from Myriandrion to the Golden Gate. He was actually assigned the most difficult mission in the final moments which would be to cross the moat and scale the walls while being protected by the archers and cannoneers. After the siege he was immedeately appointed as the Grand vizier, replacing Çandarlı Halil Paşa. His brother Michael Angelovich was an ambassador prince voyvoda / despot of serbs , as a matter of fact Mahmut Paşa was responsible for drafting one of the peace agreements with the serbs, where his brother was the contact on the other side. The courtyard of this mosque was where his body was prepared for its final journey. He was loved to much that he was declared a saint for a while after his death. The mosque was constructed with two dome's for the interrior to reach the desired size in space. There are no oher mosques with two domes. In 1473 there were also rumors that Fatih Sultan Mehmed's ( Mehmed II) son Price Mustafa was in an affair with one of the wives of Mahmut Paşa. She was cast away by Mahmut Paşa who divorced her upon learning this, but had to remarry her upon pressure from the sultan, yet they didn't live together and stayed away. Mahmut Paşa was dismissed from the post of Grand Vizier in 1743 and retired to Hasköy. Price Mustafa the beloved son of the Sultan died in 1474.  Upon his death Mahmut Paşa decided to visit the Sultan in Istanbul to give his condolences, however the Grand Vizier that replaced him was scared of his influence and spread rumors about his sincerity. Sultan imprisoned Mahmut Paşa until he was executed. He was strangled with a bowstring. The use of bowstring for the execution of Mahmud Paşa shows the great respect in which he was held in Ottoman courts since it was the most honorable from of capital punishment, with no blood shed and was reserved for the royal family or very high officials. He was burried in the türbe in this mosque. In the tiled tomb of Mahmut Paşa there is a sense of Selçuklu which is nice. A couple decades later, Ibn Kemal the famous Turkish historian ends the chapter on Mahmud Paşa with these lines from the famous Persian mathematician, philosopher, astronomer, physician, and poet Omer Khayyam:

Every brick that is on the battlement of a palace Is the finger of a Vezir, or a head of a Sultan.

books.google.com/books?id=ptXG0uA70lAC&printsec=frontcover&hl=en#v=onepage&q&f=false

Choose Mahmut Paşa Mahkeme street, where you entered the mosque from, again after you exit the mosque. Before you enter Küçük Yıldız Hanı Street make a right towards Kılıççılar street (sword makers street) . This is a nice, narrow street with shops lines on both sides, which you'll find joyful to walk through. Further ahead to your right, you will see an arched door , this is the entrance of Çuhacı Han (broadcloth mall) , lets enter Çuhacı Han an exit through the other door. We are on Çuhacı Han street.

We are almost in Grand Bazaar. After many earthquakes, fires and repairs there are 2 restaurants, 4399 stores, 2195 rooms, 495 closets, 12 exchanges offices, 1 mosque, 10 mescids, 1 hammam Turkish bath, 19 fountains, 8 wells, 24 malls, 1 school and one tomb, in a 47000 m2 area. These days not all of these stand of course. Sandal Bedesten (Sandal Bazaar) and Cevahir Bedesten are the first buildings of the grand bazaar to be completed by Mehmet the conqueror. An eagle relief on one of the four gates of Cevahir Bedesten brings to minds that this might be made during Byzantine times, yet it makes more sense that it was constructed in Ottoman times and a stone from Byzantine era was used on the gate. As it is a closed building and it is locked at nights and on Sundays it was most preferred by valuable goods traders. However it was a place where everything was purchased and sold. It's streets were divided into sections and this can still be noticed today in the street names.

Now the important thing is to decide which way we will enter inside the bazaar. There are so many gates that it is highly probable that we will get lost. However let us take you in through a gate that not many people know despite so many entrances. Walk down the Çuhacı Han street and reach Mahmut Paşa gate. If don't want to walk around much you can just enter through Mahmut Paşa Gate. However if you want to see this little known gate mentioned, right before you reach Mahmut Paşa Gate, to your right there will be Kalcılar Han. It is right outside the Mahmutpaşa gate to your right. (Kal means -stay- in turkish and this used to be a place where people coming from all around Anatolia would tie their horses on the entrance and -stay- in the inns on the upper floor, roughly translates to "stayers"). Let's enter inside this mall, which has a nice courtyard, if you take a look you'd appreciate. Inside this Kalcılar Mall but right before it's courtyard to your left there is a tiny little narrow street named Sıra Odalar (Lined rooms) , enter and walk all the way until the end, when you make another left you will pass through a narrow corridor find yourself in Grand Bazaar on Kuyumcu Kamil Öztoprak (jeweler kamil öztoprak) street.

Grand bazaar is located at the northern edge of a larger market neighborhood that occupies the southern hillside of the Golden Horn where commercial ships arrived with their loads. From here, the merchandise was distributed to the hans and wholesale markets for distribution throughout the city. Some of these raw goods made their way up the hill to the artisan workshops of the covered bazaar whose streets are named after its artisans: slipper-makers (terlikçiler), shoe-makers (kavafçilar), mirror-makers (aynacilar), wash-cloth makers (keseciler), fez-makers (fesçiler), comforter-makers (yorgancilar), silk-thread makers (kazazcilar), polishers (perdahçilar), fur-makers (kürkçüler), just to name a few. At the heart of the Ottoman bazaar are two bedestens, or domed masonry structures designed for safe storage and sale of luxury goods, that were built by Mehmed II (1451-1481) following the conquest in order to revive trade and provide income for the newly converted Hagia Sophia Mosque. Byzantium also had a central market with streets allocated to trades and crafts; however, its exact location and its state at the time of the Ottoman conquest are not certain. It is equally difficult to identify what stood on the site prior to the Ottoman reconstruction. The two bedestens, built less than fifty meters apart facing two different directions, were quickly surrounded by shops and vaulted arcades; scholars estimate that the bazaar had reached a third of its current size by the end of Mehmed II's rule.

Sandal Bedesten (Sandal warehouse / bazaar) will be right in front of you but let's leave that for later. If you make a right on the gate you entered the bazaar and walk straight ahead you will see a little jewelry shop named Boybeyi. This is not like the other stores. It is like a small 2 story hut in the middle of the street, walk around it and you'll see. This used to be a Turkish custard shop, and, it beats me how they fit in but there would be people on the second floor sitting down eating custard. Imagine that while looking at this store, I cant say it has much attractiveness after it became a jewelry. Walk towards this jewelry hut Boybeyi but follow to the left of it. You would be on Halıcılar street (carpet street) where most cafe's are today. To the left of this street is the Cevahir bedesteni. Before we enter lets touch the locations on this street. Here is Fes Case, Cafe Moak, Ethem Tezçakar coffeeshop. All are places where we can sit and eat and drink things to our liking. If you are not tired yet, we will soon see once we pass the Bedesten, Şark Kahvesi or Havuzlu restaurant you can wait for these. You will also see a store named "Deli Kızın Yeri"("The Crazy Girls Place"). This belongs to an American couple who used to work at the American embassy and they loved Turkey so much that they stayed after their retirement and opened up a shop here. Enter Cevahir Bedesten to your left, the entrance is next to Fes Cafe. Once you enter Cehavir bedesten and see this oldest spot of Grand Bazaar . you will exit through the street on your right, Zenneciler street, (Zenneci means the seller of clothing and shoes for women)  İç Bedesten, Cevahir Bedesten, Old Bedesten  used to be a place where guns were sold. It preserved that state up until 34-40 years ago. Besides guns all kinds of jewelry and valuable materials were also here. Sculptures, arrows, bows, swords, daggers, this place was almost like a museum back then. And people who bought and sold these goods were very experienced people. By time, these goods lessened and left their place to ordinary goods. In addition to jewelry sales and auctions for the slave trade (outlawed in 1847), the Old Bedesten was also used by all merchants of the covered bazaar as a safe deposit for money and precious goods. Its floor space is occupied by a large number of small wooden stores today. Today, the bedesten does not have the look of the bedesten 35-40 years ago. Still compared to other parts of the grand bazaar it is a calmer and more serious section. There are no salesman here that screams and shouts and pulls the client inside the store from their arm. There are salesmen who take their jobs seriously, know the goods they sell and people who doesn't just want to sell the good but also inform the client about their purchase. In this aspect they claim tourists are even more attentive to their purchases, history of their items, how to care for them, more than the locals. Back in the days of the Ottoman era, there were no ornaments and no advertisements either. It was purely an eastern practice, it was the noble unambitious attitude of a Turkish-Islamic society that regarded any endeavor to attract customers or to praise one's own skill or one's own goods as shameful and degrading. Sales items were simply displayed on the shelves.

First, there were two Bedestens forming the nucleus of the Bazaar: İç (Inner) Bedesten and Sandal Bedesteni . The four adjacent sides and the immediate surrounding of the Bazaar were encircled by hans (the business buildings) each of which were a separate unit in themselves. The jewelers have been shown to be outside the Bedesten because jewelers meant two different professions. One was the gold and silversmith, working in gold and jewels, the other jewelers dealing with precious stones like diamonds, pearls etc. In the Ottoman Empire Period, gold and silver were not a means of accumulating wealth as they are today, but were merely treated as articles for daily use, there was no necessity for the artisans and their materials to be taken within the massive Bazaar walls . The jewelers were Inner Bedesten merchants . Another function of the Bedesten apart from being a market for precious stones was that, it was a safe keeping  institution for the valuables of the rich served parallel to the safe deposit boxes concept in modern banking. Hence, the security in the Bedesten was so firm and doubtless. In the Bazaar in its classical pattern each street and alley were reserved for certain professions. Foreign travelers who had an interest in Istanbul noted that they find this system of grouping the trades and crafts according to the products they produce, very rational for production and trade organization. This principle of settlement which was a requirement and consequence of the guild system was useful for price uniformity and control . In order for a guild to be formed, there had to be sufficient traders. When the necessary number was met, they were considered as a licensed trade monopoly and their numbers and working places are stabilized. The number of jewelers, who were the oldest and most crowded artisans of the Bazaar, increased from 279 in 1960 to, 364 in 1972. With this increase the jewelers reached an important share in the Bazaar. In 1965 jewelers took place in and around Sandal Bedesten in the east part of the Bazaar. Hence, the Bazaar shifted from its aim of being a Bazaar of needs, as it was ones it had been founded, and became a core of trade, tourism and production, reflecting their contemporary cultures.

 

Grand Bazaar (Covered Bazaar) by Orhan Veli (Varlık, 1.3.1947)

you know the scent of yet unworn laundry,
in the rooms of cedar chests;
thats the scent of your store.
you dont know my sister,
she was going to be a bride in Independence, had she lived;
these are her  threads,
this is her veil.
and how about these women on the windows?
these bright blue
these bright green dressed…
do they keep standing like this as well at nights?
and how about that one with the soft cotton shirt,
does she not have a story as well?
don't sell the covered bazaar short,
A covered bazaar, a covered box.

 

. you'll see Şark Kahvesi straight ahead. Şark Kahvesi as I mentioned before is a nice place to sit. The coffee shop has been serving in the Grand Bazaar for almost 60 years. The famous coffee is heated in hot sand, which I highly suggest you try.  When you are done, walk up to the left side of Fes Cafe and continue up from Fesçiler street (The fes hat makers street).When you see Kuyumcu street (jeweler street) make a right. Here, because of the -monumental- pool at the entrance, there is a restaurant named Havuzlu Restaurant. You can take a seat here as well.

If you are rested, lets continue our walk from Şark kahvesi. We follow Yağlıkçılar street, so Şark Kahvesi will be on your left this time. You'll see on your left the Çakır Ağa mosque. This mosque inside the bazaar even has a small minaret. At the time of the ezan, the imam climbs 3-4 stairs and from the top of the minaret with the help of a microphone calls the storeowners to namaz. Further ahead on your left you'll see Cebeci Han. If we continue straight ahead this road will take us to Örücüler Gate (the weavers gate)  as well as the Örücüler hamamı. This is a relatively small hamam, however insides is surprisingly "spacious enough" as with all hamams. This one shot to fame a couple years ago when Turkish superstar Tarkan closed it for a private party inside before he was off to Turkish army, a mandatory duty. This part of the bazaar is also a good place to buy kese, the traditional scrub of Turksh baths and houses. It works much better than you can imagine and at $1 a piece you should grab one from the store right at the gate.  We don't intend to leave the bazaar yet, so with Örücüler Gate being on our back, we will continue from the street right across Cebeci Han on our left Perdahçılar street (optic makers street) .

At the end of this road, where it meets Acıçeşme Street, across and a little bit to the right, is the entrance to one of the finest places in the bazaar: Zincirli Han. This place is preserved well on every aspect. The stones on the ground, the stores on the upper level and even the stairs in between are as they were in the past. Before you enter the courtyard if you climb upstairs from the stairs to your left you will see that the stores surrounding the courtyard did not see any need to advertise their business with large signs. All stores look alike and made their own doors inside yet as the green authentic doors are still standing in front of these, the look has not been damaged at all. When you peek inside the windows of these stores you will notice that inside are as the past as well. No one can guess that there are luxurious jewelry inside those green doors.

Significant Stores: Adıyaman Pazarı – Yağlıkçılar Cad., No: 74-76 Tel: (212) 526 97 59. Emin Çömez Yağlıkçılar Cad 101–103, covered bazaar Excellent hat stall, well-stocked in winter with Russian and Turkish wool, leather and fur. This street is also good for traditional Anatolian textiles. Iç Bedesten Covered bazaar The "Old Bazaar" is where the most precious objects have traditionally been kept. It's the place to go for antiques, reproductions and souvenirs of every kind, from Ottoman hamam slippers to pistols and silver jewellery. Kato Export Halıcılar Cad 55, covered bazaar Ottoman copper and Byzantine icons from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. May Kolancilar Kapısı Sok 7, covered bazaar Kilim bags, belts, purses and so forth, as well as ceramics. Sarnıçlı Han Çadırcılar Cad 5, covered bazaar A wholesale and handicraft bazaar: lots of copperware. Sivaslı İstanbul Yazmacısı Yağlıkçılar Cad 57, covered bazaar Hand-woven and hand-embroidered textiles, both old and new. Sofa Nuruosmaniye Cad 42, Cağaloğlu Old prints, maps, calligraphy, contemporary art and quality ceramics. Yurt Antika Cebeci Han 51, covered bazaar Central Asian carpets, kilims and textiles, some antique. It supplies to many other shops, so prices tend to be lower, and smaller items, such as cushions, go from 3YTL.

Once we are back out of Zincirli han if we continue to left from this point, we will arrive at the spot we entered the bazaar. Lets not go back completely yet continue passed Kuyumcular street and enter Sandal Bedesten. This is again one of the oldest structures in the bazaar. Back in the days there used to be auctions here but not anymore. In the Ottoman times before the auction began traders flocked inside as guards opened the doors and once everyone was positioned in front of their own stores, the upper ranked prayer conductor would lead them all through a prayer for the Sultan. Followed by an oath that there wont be any "deception, trickery, monopoly on a good, and no purchases or sales without a guarantor" which only then would proceed to the auction. Once we exit the Bedesten we are on Kalpakçılarbaşı street, we make a right and walk the street from one end to the other. You will see the Kürkçüler Çarşısı (the fur makers bazaar) on your left. After the 1945 fire the fountain that was enliven is also on this path. This street is as a matter of fact one of the least pleasant, or rather uninteresting streets of the bazaar. It is almost like an avenue, even a car would fit in. The end of this street is the Beyazıt Gate. Perhaps you might want to visit the Sahaflar Bazaar (second-hand thrift book sellers) once you exit this gate. Eminönü Walk- Çemberlitaş-Kapalı Çarşı Parkuru

 

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According to historian of 4th crusade Robert De Clari, Byzantium had accumulated the 2 thirds of whole world’s property. In the City=Eis tin Polin=Istanbul (Constantinople) there were 4388 palaces, many hospitals, orphanages, poorhouses, thousands of churches and University called "Pandidaktirion"that was founded on 849 A.D. by Kaisar Barda. Other Universities were built in Antioxeia, Alexandreia, Athens, Thesalonica, Byrut and Kaesareia of Cappadokia.

It is claimed that in the 12th century the population of Constantinople was bigger than the population of England (between 600k to a million). Prof. Andreades puts the population of the empire around 10 to 15 million but later refrains making any more estimates.

Constantinople had a population of 1000000 habitants while the second largest city in Europe had 50000. Unlike Rome, Constantinople had several industries producing luxury goods, military supplies (the famous greek fire), hardware, textiles and jewellery.

The byzantine civil Law (Justinian codex) was the basis of the later European civil Law. On 726, Leo III Isaurian abolished the slavery in the farms. The farmers should be free men.

West Europeans learned from Byzantines how to eat not with hands but with forks, and to sleep in silk sheets.

The turning point in the city’s history occurred when Emperor Constantine I dedicated it as the capital of the Roman Empire in 330 CE. As the late Roman writer Sozomen put it:

 

Of perhaps greater interest is what Liutprand tells us about the devices the Byzantines used to impress foreign visitors. He is describing an ambassador’s reception by Constantine VII a number of years earlier.

In front of the Emperor’s throne was set up a tree of gilded bronze, its branches filled with birds, likewise made of bronze gilded over, and these emitted cries appropriate to their different species. Now the Emperor’s throne was made in such a cunning manner that at one moment it was down on the ground, while at another it rose higher and was seen to be up in the air. This throne was of immense size and was, as it were, guarded by lions, made either of bronze or wood covered with gold, which struck the ground with their tails and roared with open mouth and quivering tongue.

The Byzantine empire in 565, at its largest expansion ever

 

A CHRONOLOGY OF EVENTS AND EPISODES IN BYZANTINE HISTORY

SEVENTH CENTURY CHRONOLOGY

591-628 Chosroes II, Shah of Persia, established by Emperor Maurice
600s    Avars invade Macedonia and Thrace
602    Military revolt on Danube, troops proclaim Phokas, march on Constantinople and murder Maurice
602-10  Emperor Phokas
603 onwards Persians invade eastern provinces
610     Senate secretly invites Exarch of Carthage to revolt
610-41  Emperor Herakleios
610-38  Patriarch Sergios of Constantinople
613     Persians capture Antioch
614     Persians capture Jerusalem, Patriarch Zacharias and Christian population with True Cross sent as prisoners to Persia
ca. 618  Chinese embassy to Constantinople
619-29  Persian occupation of Egypt
622     Flight of Muhammad to Medina (Hijri)
622-3   Herakleios begins campaign against Persians, lands of the themata (themes) mentioned in Chronographia of Theophanes (at the year Anno Mundi 6113 = AD 620/1)
626     Combined Avar/Persian siege of Constantinople defeated
628     Herakleios defeats Persians, captures Nineveh, liberates Christian prisoners and True Cross;  Syria, Palestine and Egypt revert to Byzantine control
631     True Cross restored to Jerusalem
632    Death of Muhammad
634     Psephos issued by Herakleios, proclaims doctrine of Monotheletism, theory of one-will of Christ
634     Arabs capture Damascus
635     Nestorian missionaries reach China
637     Arabs capture Antioch
638     Ekthesis imposes Monotheletism
638     Arabs capture Jerusalem
640     Byzantine thema of Opsikion established
640s    Arab conquest of Persia
641     Death of Herakleios, disputed succession, Senate of Constantinople exiles Empress Martina and her son
641-68  Emperor Constans II, grandson of Herakleios
642     Arab capture of Alexandria, and conquest of Egypt; Mu’awiya riads Armenia
647     Mu’awiya begins regular raids into Asia Minor
648     Typos issued, confirms Monotheletism, bans debate
649     First sea-borne Arab raids on Cyprus
649-55  Pope Martin I
649     Lateran Synod in Rome condemns Monotheletism
650-55  Trial of Pope Martin I in Constantinople and exile to Cherson in Crimea
656-61  First Arab civil war, removal of capital from Damascus to Baghdad under new dynasty of Abbasids
662     Constans II moves capital to Syracuse, Sicily
668     Constans murdered in bath, revolt of Mezezios
668-85  Emperor Constantine IV, son of Constans II
674-8   Arab siege of Constantinople
670s    Establishment of Anatolikon, Armeniakon and Thrakesion themata in Asia Minor
680      Death of Caliph Mu’awiya
680-1   Sixth general church council at Constantinople, condemns Monotheletism with support of Pope Agatho
680-1  Bulgars cross Danube under Khan Asperuch
685     Death of Constantine IV, undisputed succession of son
685-95  Emperor Justinian II
691-2   Caliph Abd al Malik constructs the Dome of the Rock (mosque) at Jerusalem
692     Council in Trullo held in Constantinople, issues 102 canons
695     Themata of Thrace, Sicily and Calabria, and Hellas
695     Rebellion of Leontios, strategos (governor) of Hellas; Justinian II deposed, mutilated and exiled to Cherson
695-8   Emperor Leontius
695     First Muslim coins minted in Syrian capital, Damascus
698     Arabs capture Carthage, complete Great Mosque at Kairouan
698     Leontius deposed by troops commanded by Apsimar
698-705 Emperor Tiberius II (Apsimar)
702     Death of Asperuch, Khan of Bulgars
705     Justinian II restored to power with Khazar support
705-11  Second reign of Justinian II
705-15  Caliph Walid constructs the Great Mosque at Damascus
711     Justinian killed by troops loyal to exiled military commander Bardanes Philippikos
711-3   Emperor Philippikos, revives Monotheletism
713     Philippikos deposed by troops who impose civilian official Artemios as emperor
713-5   Emperor Anastasius II (Artemios)
715-17  Emperor Theodosius III, imposed by troops of Opsikion
717    Revolt of Anatolikon and Armeniakon troops led by Leo, strategos of the Anatolikon thema

EIGHTH CENTURY CHRONOLOGY

698-705 Reign of Tiberios
705-11  Emperor Justinian II restored to power
705-15  Caliph Walid constructs the Great Mosque at Damascus
706     Arab invasions of Asia Minor recommence
711    Arabs invade and conquer Spain
711-13  Justinian II killed; Emperor Philippikos
713-15  Philippikos deposed; Emperor Anastasios II
714     Caliph Walid prepares major campaign against Byzantium
715-17  Emperor Theodosios III, proclaimed by naval troops
715-31  Pope Gregory II
716     Sack of Pergamon, where pagan practices contribute to the city’s demise
717    Theodosios III abdicates; Leo, general of Anatolikon theme, acclaimed emperor, crowned by Patriarch Germanos
717-41  Emperor Leo III
717-8   Arab siege of Constantinople
720     Leo III’s son Constantine crowned co-emperor; double-headed coins issued
721     Caliph Yazid issues iconoclastic edict
722    Leo III’s forced conversion of the Jews
723-4  Fall of Iconion (modern Konya) to Arabs
726     "Edict" of Leo III against icons, ultimatum sent to Rome
730 ca. Publication of <I>Ekloga</I>
727     Arab siege of Nicaea (Iznik)
730     Deposition, or resignation of Patriarch Germanos, introduction of official iconoclasm in Byzantium
731-41  Pope Gregory III
731    Roman Council condemns iconoclasm
732-3   Diocese of East Illyricum transferred by Leo III from Rome to Constantinople
739-41  Lombards under King Liutprand besiege Rome
740     Leo III and son Constantine defeat Arabs at Akroinon
741     Death of Leo III, son Constantine V, challenged by Artabasdos, his brother-in-law
742-3   Civil war ended by defeat of Artabasdos
741-75  Emperor Constantine V
747-8   Plague in Constantinople
741-52  Pope Zacharias, has Pope Gregory the Great’s Dialogues translated into Greek, negotiates a truce with Lombards
750     Abbasid revolt opens first Arab civil war
751     Lombards capture Ravenna, previously capital of Byzantine exarchate, end of imperial administration in northern Italy
752-7 Pope Stephen II, first Roman elected to the papacy in the eighth century
753-4   Pope Stephen II travels to Francia, makes alliance between papacy and Pippin, king of the Franks
754     Council of Hiereia, near Constantinople, condemns icon veneration, pronounces the theory of iconoclasm
755-6   Lombards under King Aistulf besiege Rome
755 and 756  Pippin campaigns in Italy against Lombards
756     Bulgars under Khan Tervel invade Thrace
757-67  Pope Paul I
757     Constantine V’s embassy to Pippin, with gift of organ and marriage proposal
760s    Abbasids transfer Muslim capital from Damascus to Baghdad, end of first Arab civil war
763     Bulgarian wars recommence; 200 000 Slavs migrate into Bithynia in Asia Minor
765     Constantine V defeats Bulgars, imposes peace
766     Byzantine fleet wrecked near Mesembria
766     Constantine V begins persecution of iconophiles
767     Synod of Gentilly, Byzantine and Frankish theologians meet, Franks support Rome and condemn iconoclasm
768-72  Pope Stephen III
768     Death of Pippin, accession of Charles, later Charles the Great (Charlemagne)
769     Lateran Synod in Rome supports cult of images and again condemns iconoclasm
772-95  Pope Hadrian, first bishop of Rome to issue own silver coinage with no reference to eastern emperors
774     Charles’ first Italian campaign
775    Death of Constantine V, succeeded by his son, Leo
775-80  Emperor Leo IV
776     Leo IV associates his son Constantine in imperial authority and thus provokes rebellion of his own half-brothers
780-90  Death of Leo IV, accession of his young son Constantine VI, with his mother, Empress Irene, as regent
781    Constantine VI betrothed to Charles’ daughter Rotrud
781    Arab invasion of Asia Minor to Chrysopolis, opposite Constantinople, Irene agrees to a humiliating peace
784    Patriarch Paul forced to resign; imperial secretary and layman Tarasios appointed in his place
786-809 Caliph Harun al Rashid
786    Irene summons a council to reverse iconoclasm; has to abandon attempt because of troops loyal to Constantine V
787     Seventh universal church council successfully held at Nicaea, restores icon veneration with Pope Hadrian’s approval
787-8   Charles’ second Italian campaign
788    Empress Irene breaks off the Frankish betrothal and marries Constantine to Maria of Alania
790-97  Emperor Constantine VI rules alone
792    Constantine VI defeated by Bulgars
794     Synod of Frankfurt condemns as idolatry the Council of Nicaea’s support for icon veneration
795 and 796  Arabs invade Asia Minor
795    Constantine VI repudiates Maria (confined in a nunnery) and  marries Theodotes; this adultery provokes monastic opposition led by St. Theodore of the Stoudion monastery
795-816 Pope Leo III
796     Aachen founded as Charles’ capital in the West
797     Constantine VI blinded, Empress Irene rules alone
798     Arabs invade Asia Minor and arrive at Bosphoros
798     Pope Leo III flees from Rome to Charles
800     25 December, Pope Leo III crowns Charles Holy Roman Emperor
802     Charles sends marriage proposal to Irene
802     Empress Irene overthrown in palace coup, finance minister becomes Emperor Nikephoros, 802-11

NINTH CENTURY CHRONOLOGY

800    Coronation of Charles the Great (Charlemagne) as Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III in Rome
802-11  Emperor Nikephoros I
803    Nikephoros associates his son Staurakios in imperial authority
803     Nikephoros campaigns against the Arabs in Asia Minor
805     Combined Slav and Arab attack against Patras in Peloponnesos, southern Greece, is repelled
806     Death of Patriarch Tarasios, Patriarch Nikephoros appointed over monastic opposition
806    Caliph Harun al Rashid leads Arab forces into Asia Minor, Nikephoros obliged to increase terms for a truce
807    Khan Krum and Bulgars advance towards Constantinople
811     Emperor Nikephoros prepares major offensive against the Bulgars, invades the capital Pliska, dies in ambush
811-13  Staurakios proclaimed emperor but dies from wounds; his brother-in-law accedes as Emperor Michael I
812     Byzantine embassy to Charles acclaims him as Basileus (emperor)
812    Bulgar invasion of Thrace, Khan Krum occupies Mesembria
813     Michael I leads Byzantines to defeat at Versinikia; army proclaims Leo, general of the Anatolikon theme as emperor
813-20  Emperor Leo V, called the Armenian
813     Khan Krum besieges Constantinople unsuccessfully, Leo V defeats Bulgars at Mesembria
814     Khan Krum again besieges Constantinople, dies suddenly, Byzantines conclude a 30-year peace with successor Omurtag
814-40  On Charles’ death, his son Louis becomes Western emperor
814     Leo V invites Patriarch Nikephoros to resume iconoclasm; he declines, is exiled and replaced by iconoclast Theodotos Melissenos
815     Council of S. Sophia reaffirms iconoclasm
820    Leo V accuses Michael the Stammerer, commander of the Exkoubitors of plotting against him; Michael organizes the murder of Leo V on Christmas Day
820-29  Emperor Michael II, suspends all discussion of icons and associates his son Theophilos in imperial power
821-23  Revolt of Thomas the Slav, who overruns Asia Minor, besieges Constantinople and is finally defeated by Bulgars
824     Byzantine letter to Emperor Louis on the dangers of idolatry
825    Council of Paris condemns the cult of images
826-7   Ummayad Arab pirates from Spain conquer Crete
829-42  Emperor Theophilos, iconoclast persecution
830     Arab conquest of Palermo, Sicily
831     Theophilos campaigns against Arabs in Asia Minor
837     John the Grammarian elected Patriarch
837     Theophilos celebrates another triumph over the Arabs
838     Arab capture of Amorion
842     Death of Theophilos, accession of young son Michael with Regency of Empress Theodora, her brothers Bardas and Petronas, and Theoktistos the logothete
842-67  Emperor Michael III
843     Triumph of Orthodoxy, reestablishment of icon veneration by
Empress Theodora, Patriarch Methodios appointed
843     Treaty of Verdun divides the western empire of Charles
847     Death of Methodios, Patriarch Ignatios
856     Michael III’s uncle Bardas removes Theodora from the Regency, Michael III acclaimed emperor by Senate
856    Expedition against the Paulicians in Tephrike
858     Deposition and exile of Patriarch Ignatios
858-67  Patriarch Photios, first period
859     Arabs commence conquest of Sicily
860    Russians attack Constantinople
861     Photios sends Constantine and Methodios to Khazaria
862     Bardas proclaimed Caesar
863     Imperial school established at Magnaura Palace
863-7   Constantine and Methodios sent to Moravia
863     Pope Nicholas I deposes Photios and recognizes Ignatios
864/5   Baptism of Bulgarian Khan Boris
865     Michael III appoints Basil parakoimomenos
867     Photios excommunicates Pope Nicholas I, and condemns the "Filioque" clause in the creed
867     Michael III murdered, Basil proclaimed
867-86  Emperor Basil I the Macedonian
867     Photios deposed, Ignatios restored as Patriarch
867/8   Roman synod under Hadrian II condemns Photios
868     Arabs besiege Ragusa/Dubrovnik
869     Byzantine alliance with Louis II against the Arabs
869     Eighth Oecumenical Council in Constantinople restores union of churches
869     Death of Constantine as monk Cyril in Rome
869-70  Arabs capture Malta
870-9   Publication of Procheiros Nomos, legal code
871     Basil I writes to Louis II about imperial title
872     Campaign against Paulicians, destruction of Tephrike
872     Defeat of Arab fleet off Corinth, central Greece
876     Byzantine forces reoccupy Bari in southern Italy
877     Death of Ignatios, Photios restored as Patriarch
878     Fall of Syracuse to Arabs who complete conquest of Sicily
879-80  Council of Constantinople rehabilitates Photios
879-80  Publication of Epanagoge, legal code
885     Byzantine forces reconquer Calabria
886     Death of Basil I, accession of sons Leo and Alexander
886-912 Emperor Leo VI
886     Photios deposed again, replaced by Patriarch Stephen
889     Abdication of Khan Boris, accession of his son Vladimir, heathen reaction in Bulgaria
893     Vladimir defeated by father Boris and brother Symeon
893 ca.-927 Reign of Khan Symeon of Bulgaria
893     Patriarch Stephen dies, replaced by Anthony Kauleas
894     Symeon invades Macedonia and Thrace
897     Death of Theophano, wife of Leo VI
898     Reconciliation of Ignatian supporters with Patriarch
898     Leo marries Zoe, daughter of Stylianos Zaoutzes
899     Zoe dies
899 ca. Compilation of Philotheos’ <I>Kleterologion</I> (precedence list)
912    Death of Leo VI the Wise, succeeded by brother Alexander and son Constantine VII aged 6 years

TENTH CENTURY CHRONOLOGY

893 ca.-927 Reign of Khan Symeon of Bulgaria
896    Magyars arrive in Carpathian Basin
900     Leo marries Eudokia
901     Eudokia dies
901     Death of Patriarch Anthony Kauleas, election of Nicholas, previously imperial secretary, <I>mystikos</I>
902     Leo installs his mistress Zoe in the imperial palace
902/3-32 Arethas, archbishop of Caesarea
904   Arabs sack Thessalonike
904 ca. Peace treaty with Bulgaria negotiated by Leo Choirosphaktes
905     Birth of Constantine, son of Leo and Zoe
906     Baptism of Constantine, Leo marries Zoe, proclaimed Augusta, empress; patriarchal synod condemns Leo for marrying  a fourth time; Leo VI appeals to Rome and eastern Patriarchs
907    Rome and the eastern Patriarchs support Leo VI, who forces
Patriarch Nicholas to abdicate and appoints Euthymios
911    Constantine crowned co-emperor
912    Death of Leo VI, succeeded by brother Alexander and son Constantine VII aged 6
913    Death of Alexander, Council of Regency for Constantine headed by Patriarch Nicholas mystikos; ‘Coronation’ of Tsar (Khan) Symeon outside Constantinople
913-4  Empress Zoe returns to palace to protect Constantine
914-9  Attacks by Arabs
917    Byzantine surprise attack on Symeon, major Bulgarian victory at Anchialos
918    Arabs capture Reggio in Calabria
919    Romanos Lekapenos, naval commander, takes control of palace; assumes title of basileopater and marries his daughter Helen to Constantine; empress Zoe relegated to a monastery
920    "Tomos" of Union pronounced by Patriarch Nicholas; fourth marriage condemned
920   Romanos named Caesar, then crowned emperor by Patriarch Nicholas
921   Romanos I crowns his son Christopher co-emperor
922   Bulgar attack on Constantinople
923   Bulgar invasion of Thrace
924   Symeon makes Arab alliance to attack Constantinople; threat resolved by Byzantine diplomacy and peace treaty
924  Romanos crowns his sons Constantine and Stephen co-emperors
925  Symeon declares himself emperor of the Bulgars and the Romans
925   Death of Patriarch Nicholas
926   Arab Emir of Sicily subjects maritime cities of southern Italy to Muslim tribute
926 Symeon obtains recognition of his title from Rome
927  Death of Symeon, his son Peter makes peace with Byzantium, alliance secured his marriage to Maria, daughter of Romanos I
927- ca. 967 Reign of Khan (Tsar) Peter of Bulgaria
927-8 Serious Byzantine-Arab conflicts on the eastern borders
931   Death of Christopher Lekapenos
933   Election of Theophilatos, son of Romanos I, as patriarch
939-44 Further series of Byzantine-Arab conflicts; Byzantine capture of Edessa and transfer of Mandylion to Constantinople
941  Russian Prince Igor leads attack on Constantinople
944  Second Russian attack on Constantinople, avoided by diplomatic actions and commercial treaty
944 Constantine and Stephen Lekapenos revolt against their father; deport Romanos I into exile, where he becomes a monk; dies 948
945  Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos removes the Lekapenoi brothers from power and rules alone, 944-59
945  Constantine VII’s son Romanos crowned co-emperor
947-9  Byzantine embassy to Muslim Spain
948   Liutprand, bishop of Cremona, sent by Count Berengar of Italy to Constantinople
948-9  Further Byzantine conquests on Euphrates in East
950-7  Arab counter-offensive in the East, checked by John Tzimiskes
954 ca. Completion of the treatise known as <I>De Administrando Imperio</I>
956-8  Byzantine campaign in southern Italy, truce with Arab Sicily
957    Visit of Olga of Russia, widow of Prince Igor to Constantinople; discussion about Christian missions to Russia
958    Appearance of Magyars (Hungarians) in Thrace
959    Death of Constantine VII, succeeded by his son Romanos II
960    Romanos crowns his son Basil co-emperor
960    Reconquest of Crete by general Nikephoros Phokas, triumphal return to Constantinople
962    Nikephoros Phokas leads reconquest of Anazarbos, the Euphrates frontier and captures Aleppo in Syria
963    Death of Romanos II; his widow Theophano claims the regency for her
sons Basil and Constantine (four months)
963    Nikephoros Phokas acclaimed emperor by troops in Cappadocia, marches on Constantinople, crowned emperor by patriarch
963    Nikephoros II marries Theophano and reigns with Basil and Constantine, co-emperors
963    John Tzimiskes takes refuge with the Emir of Tarsos
964-5  Nikephoros II campaigns in the East, captures Adana and Tarsos; celebrates triumph in Constantinople
966-7  Nikephoros II’s second campaign to Syria and Mesopotamia
967    Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor, allies with Lombards in southern Italy and threatens Byzantine territory in Calabria
967    Nikephoros II makes peace treaty with Emir of Sicily
967-9  Liutprand’s second embassy to Constantinople, sent by Otto I to find a Byzantine bride for Otto’s son
967-8  Nikephoros II allies with Russian Prince Sviatoslav, Olga’s son, campaigns against the Bulgars
968-9    Third campaign against Syria, celebrated in triumph
969    Sviatoslav conquers large parts of Bulgaria and captures Boris II; Nikephoros allies with Bulgars against Russians
969    Nikephoros II assassinated by John Tzimiskes, proclaimed emperor and crowned by patriarch, with Basil and Constantine co-emperors
970    Sviatoslav prepares attack on Constantinople
970    John I Tzimiskes confirms alliance with Otto I, sends his niece Theophano to marry Otto’s son
971  John I campaigns against Sviatoslav, besieges him at Dristra, and forces a peace settlement; Sviatoslav murdered by Pechenegs en route to Kiev
972    John I reconquers Nisibis and Martyropolis in East
972    Marriage of Theophano and Otto II celebrated in Rome
974    Second major campaign in the East, conquests celebrated by a triumph in Constantinople (975)
975    Third victorious eastern campaign of John I, who dies of malaria
975    Basil II and Constantine VIII acclaimed emperors under the guidance of Basil the parakoimomenos, illegitimate son of Romanos I Lekapenos
976-9  Revolt of Bardas Skleros against Basil II
981-3  Otto II invades Byzantine Apulia, in southern Italy, but retires to Rome and dies there (983)
985    Basil II removes Basil Lekapenos, parakoimomenos, Basil II and Constantine VIII reign alone
986    First campaign of Basil II against Samuel, who has secured control of much of northeastern Balkans (centred on Prespa in modern Republic of Macedonia)
986-9  Revolt of Bardas Skleros against Basil II, who makes alliance with Vladimir of Kiev
989    Basil marries his sister Anna to Vladimir, the conversion of the Russians begins
991-4   Second Bulgarian campaign, Basil II reconquers Berroia
992     Commercial treaty with Venice
995     Basil II campaigns in the East
995-8   Samuel of Bulgaria invades Greece
997 ca. Samuel proclaimed Tsar of Bulgaria
996     Theophano, regent for Otto III, sends embassy to Byzantium for a marriage alliance
999     Basil II conquers Homs in Syria, winters in Tarsos
ca. 1000  Death of Saint Athanasios, founder of the Great Lavra on Mount Athos (first monastery on the Holy Mountain)
1000-1  Basil II campaigns against Armenia and Georgia
1001    Peace treaty between Byzantium and the Fatimid Caliph establishes peace on the eastern frontier

ELEVENTH CENTURY CHRONOLOGY

985-1025  Personal rule of Basil II
1001-5    Renewed campaign against Bulgars under Khan (now Tsar) Samuel
1005      Byzantine recovery of Durazzo (with aid of Chryselioi)
1014-18   Further campaign against the Bulgars; Basil advances to the capital Ohrid, wins major defeat, visits Athens to give thanks to Virgin and celebrates a triumph at Constantinople
1018-ca. 1081  Michael Psellos
1021-22   Basil II campaigns in Armenia and Georgia
1025      Plans for the reconquest of Sicily from Arab control
1025      Death of Basil, his brother Constantine VIII rules alone
1025-36   Pecheneg incursions in northern Balkans
1027-8    Western embassy negotiates Byzantine bride for Conrad II
1028      Constantine VIII’s daughter Zoe marries Romanos Argyros
1028      Two days later Constantine dies, Zoe and Romanos acclaimed as imperial rulers
1029      Norman forces established at Aversa, southern Italy
1030      Romanos III suffers defeat by Emir of Aleppo
1031-2    Byzantine forces under George Maniakes capture Edessa, force the
Emir of Aleppo to become a vassal of the empire
1034      Romanos murdered, Zoe marries Michael the Paphlagonian, brother of finance minister, John the Orphanotrophos
1034-41   Reign of Michael IV
1035      Truce between Byzantium and Arab Sicily
1037-40   Byzantine reconquest of Sicily under George Maniakes
1040 ca.  Zoe "adopts" Michael, nephew of Michael IV, and proclaims him caesar, with right to inherit the throne
1040 ca.  Seljuk Turks threaten the Byzantino-Armenian border
1040-1    Revolt in Bulgaria led by Peter Delian, who lays siege to Thessalonike; defeated by Michael IV
1041      Death of Michael IV, succeeded by his nephew Michael V
1041-2    Byzantine revolt in southern Italy in Norman alliance
1042      Michael V exiles John the Orphanotrophos and confines Zoe to a nunnery; popular riots in Constantinople acclaim Zoe and her sister Theodora empresses; Michael V blinded and deposed
1042     Zoe marries Constantine Monomachos (her fourth marriage, which provokes ecclesiastical protest)
1042-55   Reign of Constantine IX
1042-3    Revolt of George Maniakes, proclaimed emperor by his troops in southern Italy, killed in battle in Macedonia
1043      Russian attack on Constantinople
1043-5    University of Constantinople reorganized under Michael Psellos (philosophy) and George Xiphilinos (law)
1043-58   Patriarch Michael Keroularios (Cerularius)
1043-6    Normans under Robert Guiscard plunder central Italy
1047      Revolt of John Vatatzes and Leo Tornikes
1047      First debates over use of unleavened bread (azymes) in communion
1048      Seljuk invasion in Armenia defeated
1048-53   Pechenegs cross the Danube, devastate Thrace and take Preslav; Byzantium forced to bestow land, gifts and court titles to obtain peace; John Mauropous write in praise of ‘bloodless victories’.
1049-50   Emperor Henry III acknowledges Norman control in central Italy
1050      Disgrace of prime minister Constantine Leichoudes and exile of Psellos and his teacher John Mauropous
1050      Death of Zoe, Constantine IX reigns alone
1050-1108 ca. Theophylaktos Hephaistos, later archbishop of Ohrid (from ca. 1090)
1054      Schism between churches of Rome and Constantinople over unleavened bread (azymes) and celibate clergy; Niketas Stethatos attacks the Roman use of Filioque clause ("and from the Son") in the creed
1055      Death of Constantine IX Monomachos, Theodora reigns alone
1056      Theodora dies having adopted Michael Stratiotikes as her successor
1056-7    Michael VI challenged by military leaders
1057-9    Reign of Isaac I, member of military family of Komnenos
1057      Robert Guiscard begins conquest of Calabria
1058      Embassy of Abbot Desiderius of Monte Cassino to Constantinople
1058      Trial of Patriarch Keroularios, exiled
1058-9 Seljuk leader Togrul elected Sultan and Emir of Baghdad, attacks Byzantium
1059      Constitutions of Melfi: Pope Leo IX recognizes Norman authority in Italy
1059-63   Patriarch Constantine Leichoudes
1059      Abdication of Isaac I, who designates Constantine Doukas as his successor
1059-67   Emperor Constantine X
1060      Normans conquer Calabria and begin attacks on Sicily
1064      Magyars capture Belgrade
1065-6    Sultan Alp-Arslan attacks Edessa, Caesarea, Cilicia
1067      On death of Constantine X (in May) his three sons succeed  under
the regency of mother Eudocia, with their uncle John Doukas and Michael Psellos
1067      Marriage of Eudocia to Romanos Diogenes (December)
1069-71   Long campaign of Romanos Diogenes against Seljuk Turks, successful at first but later disastrous
1071      Fall of Bari to Normans after three year siege; Battle of Mantzikert, Romanos taken prisoner, ransomed for large sum
1071     Senate deposes Romanos; Michael Doukas, son of Constantine X proclaimed emperor
1071-8    Reign of Michael VII "Parapinakes"
1072      Fall of Palermo and Sicily to Robert Guiscard
1072-5    Negotiations between Michael VII and Robert Guiscard for a marriage alliance. Simultaneous negotiations with Pope Gregory VII for military alliance.
1072-5     Pecheneg incursions in Balkans, with connivance of natives in Paristrion
1076     Turkish incursions in Asia Minor
1077     Seljuk Turks capture Jerusalem
1077     Revolt of Nikephoros Bryennios, duke of Durazzo, proclaimed emperor at Adrianople
1078     Revolt of Nikephoros Botaniates, domestikos of the scholai in Asia Minor, proclaimed at Nicaea
1078     Abdication of Michael VII in favour of his son Constantine, but Nikephoros Botaniates crowned emperor
1078-81  Reign of Nikephoros III, challenged by Robert Guiscard, protector of Michael VII, excommunicated by Pope Gregory VII
1080     Revolt of Nikephoros Melissenos
1080 ca. Seljuks under Suleiman create Sultanate of Rum in Asia Minor
1081     Revolt of Alexios Komnenos, proclaimed emperor in Thrace, allies with Nikephoros Melissenos, enters Constantinople and is crowned
1081-1118  Reign of Alexios I Komnenos Komnenos 1081     Durazzo falls to Robert Guiscard; Normans enter Greece
1082     Alexios I concedes commercial privileges to Venice
1082-3   Guiscard’s son Bohemond conquers Macedonia, Thessaly and besieges Larissa; retires to Kastoria and later to Italy
1082     Trial and condemnation of John Italos for pagan philosophy
1083     Alexios I’s daughter Anna betrothed to Constantine Doukas, son of Michael VII
1084     Norman fleet defeats Byzantine and Venetian forces off Corfu
1085     Robert Guiscard dies; brother Roger occupies Cephalonia
1086-8   Pechenegs and Cumans invade Thrace, defeat Alexios I and advance to Constantinople.  Alexios imposes truce
1088-9   Negotiations to re-establish union between the churches; patriarchal synod restores mention of popes in diptychs
1090-1   Seljuk attacks on Bithynia; Tzachas leads piracy in Aegean; Cumans and Pechenegs ally with Seljuk Turks
1091     Alexios defeats Pechenegs at decisive battle of Lebounion (Levunium)
1092     Alexios I names his son John caesar in place of Constantine Doukas
1092-4   Combined Turkish and Cuman raids, Diogenes revolt
1092     Pope Urban II appeals for a crusade at Clermont
1095     Alexios I sends embassy to Council of Piacenza for military alliance against the Turks
1096-7   The First Crusade arrives at Constantinople
1097     Alexios I marries daughter Anna to Nikephoros Bryennios
1097     Crusaders capture Nicaea (Iznik)
1098     After long siege Antioch falls to crusaders, Bohemond proclaims himself prince of Antioch
1099     Jerusalem captured by crusaders, Godfrey of Bouillon becomes Defender of the Holy Sepulchre, founds Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem

 

Famous People

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Roman & Byzantine Emperors

Roman Emperors Reign A.D.
Constantinus I 330-337
Constantinus II 337-360
Julien l’Apostat 360-363
Jovien 363-364
Valens 364-378
Gratien 378-383
Theodosius I 383-395

Byzantine Emperors

Arcadius 395-408
Theodosius II 408-450
Pulcheria 450-453
Marcianus 450-457
Leon Flavius I 457-474
Leon II 474-474
Zenon 474-491
Anastasius I 491-518
Justuinus I 491-527
Justinianus I 527-565
Justinus II 565-578
Tiberius Constantinus I 578-582
Mauricius 582-602
Phokas 602-610
Heraclius 610-641
Constantinus III 641-641
Constance II 641-668
Constantinus IV 668-685
Justinianus II 685-695
Leonitus 695-698
Tiberius II 698-705
Justinianus II (2nd time) 705-711
Tiberius III 711-711
Phillipicos 711-713
Anastasius II 713-716
Theodosius II 716-717
Leon Isauros II 717-741
Constantinus V 741-775
Leon IV 775-780
Constantinus VI 780-797
Irene 797-802
Nikephoros I 802-811
Mikhail I 811-813
Leon V 813-820
Mikhail II 820-829
Theophilos 829-842
Mikhail III 842-867
Basileios I 867-886
Leon Sophos IV 886-911
Alexandros 911-912
Zou Carhopsina 912-919
Romanos I 919-944
Constantinus VII 944-959
Romanos II 959-963
Nikephoros II 963-969
Jean Tsimiskes I 969-976
Basileios II 976-1025 The legendary, most glorious emperor of Byzantium.
Constantinus Viii 1025-1028  50 years following Basil’s death were years of prosperity and growth.
Romanos III 1028-1034
Mikhail IV 1034-1041
Mikhail V 1041-1042
Zoe & Theodora (the sisters rule jointly) 1042-1042
Constantinus IX 1042-1055
Theodora (2nd time) 1055-1056
Mikhail VI 1056-1057
Isaacios I 1057-1059
Constantinus X 1059-1067
Romanos IV 1067-1071
Mikhail VIII 1071-1078
Nikephoros III 1078-1081
Alexios I 1081-1118
Jean II 1118-1143
Manuel I 1143-1180
Alexios II 1180-1183
Andronicos I 1183-1185
Isaacios II 1185-1195
Alexios III 1195-1203
Alexios IV 1203-1204
V. Alexios 1204-1204
Latin Occupation
Theodoros I 1204-1222
Jean Ducas III 1222-1254
Theodoros II 1254-1256
Jean Ducas IV 1256-1258
Byzantine Emperors
Michael VIII Palaeologus 1258-1282
Andronicos II 1282-1328
Andronicos III 1328-1341
Jean V 1341-1347
Jean VII 1347-1355
Jean V (2nd time) 1355-1376
Andronicos IV 1376-1379
Jean V (with grandson) 1379-1391
Manuel II 1391-1425
Jean VIII 1425-1448
Constantinus XI 1448-1453
The Ottoman Sultans
Sultan Reign
Osman I 1290-1326
Orhan 1326-59
Murat I 1359-89
Beyazit I Yildirim (the Thunderbolt) 1389-1402
Mehmet I 1402-21
Murat II 1421-51
Mehmet II (Fatih, the Conqueror) 1451-81
Beyazit II 1481-1512
Selim I Yavuz (the Grim) 1512-20
Süleyman I (Kanuni, the Magnificent) 1520-66
Selim II 1566-74
Murat III 1574-95
Mehmet III 1595-1603
Ahmed I 1603-17
Mustafa I 1617-18
Osman II 1618-22
Ahmed I (restored) 1622-23
Murat IV 1623-40
Ibrahim 1640-48
Mehmed IV 1648-87
Süleyman II 1687-91
Ahmed II 1691-95
Mustafa II 1695-1703
Ahmed III 1703-30
Mahmud I 1730-54
Osman III 1754-57
Mustafa III 1757-74
Abdülhamid I 1774-89
Selim III 1789-1807
Mustafa IV 1807-08
Mahmud II 1808-39
Abdülmecid I 1839-61
Abdül Aziz 1861-76
Murat V 1876
Abdülhamid II (the Damned) 1876-1909
Mehmed V 1909-18
Mehmed VI 1918-22
Abdülmecid II (Caliph only) 1922-24

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URBAN LEGENDS

Büyük Valide Han: a hidden treasure among the ordinary

Have you ever been to Tahtakale, Eminönü? If you walk past the knickknack and brick-a-brack stores and countless bead shops, backgammon sellers and textile dealers, you will reach an area called Mercan.There are[URBAN LEGENDS] Büyük Valide Han: a hidden treasure among the ordinary - <p>Have you ever been to Tahtakale, Eminönü? If you walk past the knickknack and brick-a-brack stores and countless bead shops, backgammon sellers and textile dealers, you will reach an area called Mercan. </p> some ordinary looking buildings, but all you have to do to understand the grandeur and antiquity of some of the historic buildings among them is take a look at their roofs, which are covered with domes, or enter them and come across age-old courtyards that look like souks you’d find in any Middle Eastern city, which tourists would flock to if they were in a touristy area. However, here in Mercan, these souk-like city hans still continue their mercantile routine enmeshed with textile and metal ateliers where the ordinary and the fascinating stand shoulder-to-shoulder. Then you find yourself asking, “Is it better that a treasure, a historical beauty, stay like this, almost hidden among the ordinary, or should ‘cultural preservation’ work be carried out to highlight its historical worth?”

I guess the most efficient way to protect a historical entity, be it a building, a palace, a garden or a statue, is to have one’s personal and emotional connection to it be reflected and transmitted to others in an effort to “preserve” it. It then comes down to the question of how this very entity can be protected without being “preserved” in such a way that intends to freeze the life around it to a “forced authenticity” — almost more authentic than the authentic itself — and without being allowed to deteriorate out of being neglected for so long. The question of how to handle a historical entity that continues its life in a gradually changing context, when handled with care by specialist researchers in the area, can actually yield very positive results, forming an example for similar situations. In the “Büyük Valide Han project for research on cultural and collective memory, documentation and recollection,” carried out with the support of the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK), four academic researchers have put together an impressive model of how personal attachment and political concern for a place can actually make a change in the way a historical entity is understood and approached. They are four people, four academicians, who have gathered together throughout this project and worked hard to come up with an understanding of Büyük Valide Han as a “functioning” habitat embedded in a certain context of diversity and abandonment awaiting its destiny. This has so far been an oral history documentation project, and with a perfectly “embedded and situated” researcher like Burak Sevingen on board, it seems that there is no way the residents or even the empty halls of Büyük Valide Han could be discontent with the research results. The reason I have this opinion on this research in general and on an ongoing exhibition that Sevingen and his colleagues have put together in particular is that this project puts forward that an intimate relation between the researched and the researcher is actually possible, which is a huge step forward.

They are four people — Professor Ayşegül Baykan from Yıldız Technical University (YTÜ), Associate Professor Belkıs Uluoğlu from İstanbul Technical University, Associate Professor Zerrin İren Boynudelik from YTÜ and research assistant Sevingen from YTÜ — who have been working on the Büyük Valide Han project since 2006 and have put together an immense amount of footage — hundreds of hours, which have been turned into several documentaries and have been shown throughout their exhibition — thousands of photos and notes recording the oral history of the site, with the support of TÜBİTAK.

For the past few weeks, they have held an amazing exhibition in Büyük Valide Han with video, art, panel discussions and the like. Throughout the exhibition, two TV sets in the exhibition room have shown documentaries about Büyük Valide Han while one TV set displays a slide show of photos.

However, the most exciting way to learn about Büyük Valide Han is to actually go there and spend hours in its multifaceted corridors, spend time in metalwork, glassware or hat ateliers talking to old masters of the craft, go to the çay shop inside the building and have a chat with the people who are inside talking to the usta (expert). Judging by its people and its rituals, it is no wonder that Sevingen spends all his time here doing his anthropological research since Büyük Valide Han is a box of surprises with many mysteries within.

One of the most curious urban legends about Büyük Valide Han is that Kösem Sultan hid all her treasure in the depths of the Byzantine tower that now looks like an extension of the building. And ever since then countless treasure hunters have visited the han before and after the invention of metal detectors.

Since they have been researching Büyük Valide Han for years, it is a good idea to pay attention to the general observations and specific depictions made by this TÜBİTAK-supported academic documentation project.

Büyük Valide Han Büyük Valide Han is located on the Historical Peninsula of İstanbul. Specifically, it stands in the Han district and within the Mercan neighborhood on Çakmakçılar Yokuşu. Büyük Valide Han (the Grand Han of the Mother Sultan) was built by Kösem Sultan (d. 1651), the mother of Murat IV and İbrahim, rulers of the Ottoman Empire, during the 17th century to provide resources for the upkeep of Çinili Camii, which she had founded earlier. It is a “city han” (as opposed to a caravanserai). With two levels and three courtyards, the Büyük Valide Han of today maintains the original character of the building although it has had significant layers of additions and alterations made in form and structure. Büyük Valide Han in narrative Between the battered walls of Büyük Valide Han, as you enter the first courtyard and then the second, busy traffic and modern-looking storefronts conducting wholesale trade in clothing and fabrics welcome you. Yet, as one’s gaze acquires familiarity with the clash of additions and diverse materials that expand to the second floor, few of whose arches are left, having been diminished by these additions, one senses the sudden loss of human presence among the dark upper corridors, where from behind iron doors one encounters the sounds of only a few ateliers still at work. Yet, tenants who are able to remember Büyük Valide Han from three decades ago can recall a time when all the rooms were packed with workers, dozens of weaving looms working nonstop, porters, turners and foundry men always hard at work, coffee shops crowded and customers abounding. Today, there are more than a few residents who have gone away and, having succeeded or failed in business, have come back to Büyük Valide Han for a new try. Architecture as a life form A comparison of Büyük Valide Han with other hans shows a distinct difference in terms of this building’s dizzying effect. As with most city hans, but maybe to a greater extent here, a multilayered, complex and even a “filthy” character predominates. Different layers exist together; the Byzantine tower and other parts are woven together in the building as if it were a montage. The pre-existent mosque is no longer here; it has been replaced by a contemporary masjid, and another small building stands close to it. Various, mind-blurring materials are side by side and on top of each other. This chaotic hybrid picture reveals the intricacies of the life and history of the building and the hectic character of the lives here. The inhabitants In its population, Büyük Valide Han has embodied the quintessential character of the Ottoman Empire and later the changing character of modern Turkey. It has housed various segments of the population, people of different religions and geographical origins, with skills and trades to exchange. The han adapted to changing times by foregoing its residential rooms and increasingly housing the important trade of the times, such as printing in the late 19th century or fabric weaving during the 20th. Witnesses to the last half century at Büyük Valide Han recall the presence of leather workers, carpet dyers, cardboard traders, chest and scale makers and producers of sacks. Today, the renovated shops opening to its courtyard sell wholesale clothing and other products. On the second floor, one finds workshops of metal workers, pressing rooms, textile shops, etc. Some have been in Büyük Valide Han for 30 to 40 years. Until the 1980s, the weavers on the second floor sold their merchandise, and their traditional customers were often other merchants from Anatolia who were accustomed to coming to Büyük Valide Han for their purchases.

On the second floor, where most rooms are empty and locked up, less than 25 ateliers still operate. In them, craftsmen specialized in metals and textiles make up the two main categories of labor. Turners, polishers, foundry men, jewelers can be found among the metal workers whereas a hat maker, ironers, a cloth dyer and a label maker today make up the population of textile workers in Büyük Valide Han.

The Iranian Masjid, in the second courtyard, which once was a smaller wooden structure serving the large volume of Iranian merchants who used to do business in Büyük Valide Han, is today surrounded by shops, but nevertheless occupies a central role in the lives of a distinct cultural group on İstanbul. The congregation of the mosque are Shiite Muslims. This community comprises mainly former immigrant Azeri families of Iranian descent. This mosque has been their single most important gathering place during times of immigration. It also brings together people who shared a distant past at Büyük Valide Han.

As for the prospect of change, what the four academics think about Büyük Valide Han and its future is that in such cases, layers of living and working conditions and life patterns meaningful in now distant cultures are interwoven into the physical space. Their aim has been to reflect on the ways in which the space of Büyük Valide Han has been meaningful in diverse and sometimes contradictory ways to its inhabitants and also to the body of policy makers, tourists and researchers who objectify the Büyük Valide Han to their own ends. But the TÜBİTAK researchers conducting this project have so far claimed that they have made a small attempt to preserve the memory of Büyük Valide Han — they merely took note of times past.

I believe it is more than a small attempt at providing a model for countless historical entities in its vicinity of how to retain them in our collective unconscious by telling their stories, their personal histories, repeatedly and not letting them be neglected to the point of oblivion ever again.

FULYA ÖZLEM İSTANBUL

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Pts 02 Arl 2002, 05:59   Yeşilköy Pazarı



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Situated outside the main centre of Yesilkoy at Yesilkoy Cirpici, this large market has 2019 stands selling clothing, food, electronics and glassware housed in separate areas. Carsamba Pazari is one of the easiest markets to reach from Sultanahmet.

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Viktor Levi Wine House – Istanbul – 1914

Viktor Levi was the son of a Gallipoli sardine salesman. When he went to Bozcaada to buy sardines, he began selling grapes, and then later started selling wine. As he collected his money from the places he sold sardines to in Istanbul, he realized the demand for wine was greater than the demand for his other goods. That was how he first got started in the wine business.
Around that time, there were four main wine houses in Istanbul. Pano, Diamondi, Izmirli, and Sofraki. The owners of these establishments told Viktor Levi that they sold the most wine, and tried every way they could, to avoid paying him the asking price for his wine. However Viktor Levi decided to teach these people a lesson, and in 1914 opened his own wine house.
Viktor Levi was amazed at the demand he faced for his wine, though the demand showed; people appreciated quality. He no longer had to sell sardines or grapes, and concentrated on producing good wines up until his death in 1967. His cousin Yasef Levi continued to successfully run the ‘Viktor Levi’ wine house until he left for America in 1985.
At this time the business closed, and was later turned into a cafe, then in1999 it was bought by ‘Adakarasi Bagcilik Ltd Sti’. Work began to restore the building to its former glory. It took almost a year to bring ‘Viktor Levi’ back to life, with the decoration completed, it looked much like it had when it first opened. Once again, Viktor Levi was providing the people of Istanbul and his visitors with quality wine, in an atmosphere steeped in history…

Viktor Levi Wine House

Hamalbasi Cad. No: 8/A – Galatasaray

Beyoglu / Istanbul / TURKEY

Tel. : +90 212 249 60 85

Fax : +90 212 249 62 75

E-Mail : info@viktorlevisarapevi.com

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Büyükada (meaning “Big Island” in Turkish; Greek: Πρίγκηπος or Πρίγκιπος, pr. Pringipos: in some cases Pringipo; and alternatively Πρίγκηψ or Πρίγκιψ (pr. Pringips) meaning “Prince” or “Foremost”) is the largest of the nine so-called Princes’ Islands in the Sea of Marmara, near Istanbul. It is officially a neighbourhood in the Adalar district of Istanbul, Turkey.

One of the main squares of the island, with the statue of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

As on the other islands, motorized vehicles – except service vehicles – are forbidden, so visitors explore the island by foot, bicycle, in horse-drawn carriages, or by riding donkeys.

A convent on Büyükada was the place of exile for the Byzantine empresses Irene, Euphrosyne, Theophano, Zoe and Anna Dalassena. After his deportation from the Soviet Union in February 1929, Leon Trotsky also stayed for four years on Büyükada, his first station in exile. Princess Fahrelnissa Zeid was born in the island.

There are several historical buildings on Büyükada, such as the Ayia Yorgi Church and Monastery dating back to the 6th century, the Ayios Dimitrios Church, and the Hamidiye Mosque built by Abdul Hamid II.

Büyükada consists of two peaks. The one nearest to the iskele (ferry landing), İsa Tepesi (meaning Jesus Hill in Turkish), formerly Hristos (Χριστός, the Greek name for Jesus Christ), is topped by the former Greek Orphanage, a huge wooden building now in decay. In the valley between the two hills sit the church and monastery of Ayios Nikolaos and a former fairground called Luna Park.

Visitors can take the ‘small tour’ of the island by buggy, leading to this point, from where it is a strenuous climb to Ayia Yorgi, a tiny church with a cafe on the grounds serving wine, chips and sausage sandwiches, this being part of the “classic” Ayia Yorgi (St. George, in Greek Άγιος Γεώργιος) experience.

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Büyükada (Turkish, meaning “Big Island”) is the largest island among the Princes’ Islands in the Marmara Sea. It covers an area of 5.4 km², and the distance of the island to the nearest Maltepe shore is 2.3 km. As of 2000, it has a population of approximately 7,335 including Sedef Island.

Büyükada was used as an exile destination and as a monastery region during the Byzantine Christian period. The island was also used to exile the close relatives of kings and statesmen who might have threatened their political power. Furthermore, the island was also used as a prision for those who opposed the ones in power. One of the oldest structures on the island was a convent used for the exile of the Byzantine empress and for clergymen who lived in seclusion; however, this structure has not made it to the present day.. Undoubtedly, one of the most interesting exiles to the convent, named Kadınlar Manastırı, was the Byzantine empresses, Irene, who had the monastery built.

The Büyükada is divided into two districts: the Nizam district and the Maden district.  The island consists of two peaks with many steeps. The peak located on the southern section of the island is called “Yorgi Peak” and the other is called“Hristos Peak,” which is located on the northern section of the island. Dil Burnu (the cape) extends for an a distance of 500 m across on the western part of the island. Nizam köyü is located on the northern part of Dil Burnu and Yörükali Plaj (beach) is located on the southern section.

There were 3,000 people living on the island in the 19th century. However, with the start of boat services in the second half of the 19th century, the population of the island, which has gradually increased over the course of time. This is especially the case for Ottoman intellectuals, authors, and for the Greek community, who made up the majority of the population on the island. During this time, it was an attractive living settlement.In addition, the Büyükada is a popular summer house vacation and hosts daily visitors  from Istanbul, especially during summer time.

The Büyükada was conquered by Admiral Baltaoğlu Süleyman Beg. The island’s conquest did take a long time as compared to the conquest of the other Princes’ Island. After the conquest, the demographic structure of the island dramatically changed, and it has become over time a symbol of diversity in Istanbul. Undoubtedly, three different places of worship – a mosque, a church, and asinagogue – are the best examples of a diverse community living in peace and harmony on the the same land.

After the declaration of the constitutional monarchy in 1908, Sultan Abdulhamid II (1842-1918) had of his ministers and generals live on the island where they built villas and waterside residences which have left a rich and glossy view. In addition, Leon Trotsky – a prominent politician during the time of Lenin (1870-1924), was exiled from Russsia during the Stalin period (1879-1953) and stayed four years on Büyükada. In the 1920s, a number of Belarussians coming to Istanbul in order to escape the Russian civil war setteled on this island. This has added to the cultural diversity and harmony of the island, and one can experience a diverse taste of many different cultures.

One of the most important places of worship of the Büyükada is the Hristos Monastery located at the top of the Jesus peak. Also found on the island are the Ayios Dimitrios Church, located in Kumsal district, where Orthodox Christian islanders hold their grand religious ceremony, a Jewish Synagogoue, located in the Kumsal district, and the Hamidiye Mosque built by Sultan Abdulhamid II (1842-1918) in 1895. Moreover, there are many churches on the island. Two of the churches belong to the Armenians and Latins, and most of the others were built by Orthadox Christians. After Muslims began to settle on the island, mosques were built, adding to the number of places of worship worship drawing the attention of visitors. In adition to these places of prayer, there are several historical holy water springs called “ayazma.” Other eye-catching places on the island are Ayios Konstantinos, Ayia Fotini, Ayia Paraskevi, and Ayios Yeorios that

In 1930, the Treasure of Büyükada, which consisted of 207 coins belonging to King Phillip II, the father of Alexander the Great was found around the Greek Cemetery of the island. It was added to the collection of the Istanbul Archaeology Museum. This treasure has a special meaning in terms of revealing new historical facts of the island.

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Sedef Island, (Turkish: Sedef Adası, literally “Mother-of-Pearl Island”; Greek: Τερέβυνθος Terebinthos, and in ancient times also Androvitha or Andircuithos[citation needed]) is one of the nine islands consisting the Princes’ Islands in the Sea of Marmara, near Istanbul, Turkey. Sedef Adası is officially a neighbourhood in the Adalar district of Istanbul.

With an area of 0.157 km², it is one of the smallest islands of the archipelago. The section that’s open to the general public largely consists of a beach hat. The island is mostly private property and the current pine forests were largely planted by its owner Şehsuvar Menemencioğlu, who purchased the island in 1956 and also played an important role in the imposition of a strict building code to make sure that the island’s nature and environment will be protected. It is not allowed to build houses with more than 2 floors.

The island’s Greek name, Terebinthos, means “turpentine“, which suggests a significant presence of the turpentine tree or terebinth in earlier times. In 857 AD Patriarch Ignatios of Constantinople was sent in exile to the island, where he was imprisoned for 10 years before being re-elected as Patriarch in 867 AD.

Sedef Adası

Sedef Adası, meaning “Father-of-Pearl Island” in Turkish, is one of the nine islands constituting the Princes’ Islands in the Marmara Sea near Istanbul. It is the smallest island of the group and is open to settlement. The old name of the island was “Tavşanadası” which causes confusion with another island called “Neandros” which is also known as “Tavşanadası.” It lies just 1.1 km east of the Büyükada. Its length is 1.3 km and its width is 1.1 km. Another of the island’s name is Turpitude, which means “turpentine” suggesting a significant presence of turpentine trees or terebinth in earlier times.

The island has been beautifully decorated with festoons of flowers during previous periods. When it was seen from a distance, it looked like a pearlescent and is called “Sedefadası” as such. The native flora of the island has decreased significantly due to the effects of wind erosion, and the island’s rocky ground has come into view over the course of time. There are some monasteries located on the island like the other islands of Istanbul. Many people were also sent into exile on the island. The first monastery was built during the time of the Patriarch Leonidas. In 857 CE, Patriarch Ignatios of Constantinople was sent into exile on the island where he was imprisoned for 10 years before being re-elected as Patriarch in 867 CE.

Evliya Chelebi (1611-1684), the famous 17th centruy Ottoman traveler and writer, refer to the island as “Rabbit Island” because it was populated with countless rabits as well as goats which were brought from the other islands to graze at that time. In 1850, Sedefa Adası was owned by Damat Fethi Paşa (general of the army), during which olive tree saplings and vegetables were planted on the island. After his death, the island itself was left in a bad state, and all of the olive trees were cut down during World War I. In addition, during the occupation of Istanbul, the battlecruiser “Yavuz” was anchored offshore close to the island by occupation forces. After the difficult years of the war, the island fell into a heavy silence, which was broken only by seagulls and waves for a while. During the Republic period, the ownership of the island passed to Yegane Hanım, the wife of a poet named Hüseyin Cahit in the period of Fecr-i Ati, and after her death, it passed to her son, Şehsuvar Menemencioğlu, and to her daughter, Reyhan Şehsuvaroğlu. This family, who held ownership of the island, established a building society in 1956. It was turned into a level residential area on which 60 to 70 villas were built through the active work of the building society. While continuing to build villas, ferry services began to run between the island and Istanbul in 1958. Therefore, the island began to be excessively peopled during summer time and holidays.

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